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Introduction To Research | Geography Form 4 topic 1

Concept of Research.

Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method.

Research may be very broadly defined as systematic gathering of data and information and its analysis for advancement of knowledge in any subject.

Characteristics of research.

Characteristics of research include the following:-

  • Empirical – research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.
  • Logical – research is based on valid procedures and principles.
  • Cyclical – research starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
  • Analytical – research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental, and case study.
  • Critical – research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
  • Methodical – research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.
  • Replicability – research design and procedures are repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.

Types of research.

There are three main types of research as described below:-

  • Basic research.
  • Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a scientific research which seeks to discover basic truths or principles. This type of research is driven purely by curiosity and a desire to expand our knowledge. It tends not to be directly applicable to the real world in a direct way, but enhances our understanding of the world around us.

  • Applied research.
  • Applied research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem such as the development of new system or procedure, new device, or new method, in order to solve an immediate problem. Therefore, applied research is used to answer a specific question that has direct applications to the world. This is the type of research that solves a problem as it produces knowledge of practical use to man.

  • Developmental research.
  • Developmental research, also known as evaluative research, is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices. It attempts to assess statistics of something in order to determine its level of worth. If need arises, an improvement on it is made.

    The Importance of Research in Daily Life.

    Knowledge generated by research is the basis of sustainable development, which requires that knowledge be placed at the service of development, be converted into applications, and be shared to ensure widespread benefits. Some benefits of research include the following:-

    • Research is essential to economic and social development of our globalized society. For example, research can lead to improvement in the quality of life when, for instance, the findings show that fast population growth does not match the government’s efforts to provide comprehensive social services such water supply, health and education. In this case, family planning methods can be used to check population growth.
    • Research enables the development of knowledge or generation of a new knowledge. For example, a researcher can establish the reason why malaria cases are on the increase despite supply of mosquito nets to every household. The information obtained can be used to tackle the problem in a different approach rather than insistence on the use of nets.
    • Research can be used to test viabilities of theories and possibly develop new theories and laws.
    • Knowledge generated from research can improve farming schemes or any other aspect related to life.

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